Molybdenum mineral

So far, no elemental (free) molybdenum has been found in nature. According to the atomic structure of molybdenum, it is determined to be a typical sulphur element. Of course, it also sometimes forms minerals in an oxidized state. The most common and stable state of molybdenum is the positive tetravalent valence MoS 2 . The oxidation state of molybdenum is composed of a pure hexavalent valence state Mo 6+ .
About 30 kinds of molybdenum minerals have been found in nature. According to its composition can be divided into sulfide minerals, oxidized minerals, molybdate and other salts.
Molybdenum-containing minerals are found all over the world, but only molybdenum ore is commercially valuable, accounting for more than 98% of domestic and foreign molybdenum mining. Chinese molybdenum iron, molybdenum, tungsten calcium ore, molybdenum small amounts of lead minerals, other mineral mining also has no value.
1. Sulfide minerals
(1) Molybdenum ore MoS 2 : See the first section of Chapter 2 , containing Mo 59.94%, S 40.06%;
Properties: molecular weight: 160.07; density: 4.80g/com 3 ; Mohs hardness: 1~1.5; melting point 1185 ° C; lead gray; grayish black streak with green; {001} cleavage is extremely complete, thin sheet is flexible It is easy to bend, cracks at the bottom of the sheet and is easy to form a powder; it has a slippery feel.
Crystal structure: Molybdenite has a layered structure, hexagonal (6H) right trigonal (3R) crystal form.
(2) Amorphous MOS 2 and Jodis Mine MoS 2 :
In addition to the crystalline MoS 2 (molybdenite), there are amorphous and colloidal MoS 2 in nature, but the latter is rare. In the form of a gel, the homogeneous amorphous MoS 2 produced by the pellets is called the Jodis mine. It can be recrystallized to form molybdenum ore; it can also be weathered into molybdenum sulfate-blue molybdenum ore. Amorphous MoS 2 produced in the form of a black powder tends to adhere to the surface of the molybdenum ore.
(3) Iron- platinum molybdenum ore Mo 4 FeS 11 :
It is a sulfide mineral derived from molybdenite and still having a layered structure of molybdenite. Fe 2+ is distributed between the molybdenite layers and is disorderly changed from each other. Rarely seen, it is generally considered a variant of molybdenite.
Mineral density: 3.7; gray; streaks black. It is produced by kidney and strong, in addition to crystal phosphorus plate aggregates.
(4) copper-molybdenum ore sulfur CuMo 2 S x:
The crystal structure and properties are similar to that of molybdenite. The hexagonal system is a radial aggregate. The core part is sulphide-copper-copper ore and the outer layer is molybdenite. In the formula, x is about 5. Minerals are rare
(5) sulfur molybdenum tin copper ore Cu 6 SnMoS x :
The only molybdenum-containing sulfides with different molybdenite structure, the minerals are equiaxed crystals, hardness 4, often in the form of round or other granular or irregular aggregates produced in copper ore, very rare.
2, oxide
(1) Molybdenum MoO 3 : containing 66.7% Mo and 33.3% O.
The density is 4.5~4.74g/cm 3 , the Mohs hardness is 1~2, the melting point is 795°C, and the boiling point is 1155°C. Straw yellow, yellowish white, white to colorless; streaks white. Silky luster, pearl luster and earthy luster. {100}{010}Cleaning is complete. Slightly soluble in water, soluble in ammonia or lye.
Structure: orthorhombic system, space group is p6nm. The lattice parameters are: a 0 =0.3962nm, b 0 =1.3858nm, c 0 =0.3697nm, z=4, the crystal form is needle-like, plate-like, flat, with crystal grain along the C axis, mostly fibrous, Needle-like, radial, earthy, and scalloped.
Molybdenum is a hydrothermal alteration product of molybdenum ore, associated with molybdenum ore, limonite, etc.; associated with iron-molybdenum, is the most common secondary molybdenum mineral in molybdenum deposits.
(2) Iron molybdenum (or hydromolybdenum ore) Fe 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 · 8H 2 O or written (Fe 2 O 3 ·3MoO 3 ·8H 2 O).
Ingredients: Iron Molybdenum has different composition even in the same deposit. For example, in the CIS Solski deposit, the ratio of FeO:MoO 3 is from 1:3 to 1:4.6. Density: 2.99~4.5g/cm 3 ; Mohs hardness: 1.5, brittle, easy to form a powder. Soluble in acid, alkali and ammonia. Bright yellow, silky luster, streak is light yellow. {100}, {010} Cleavage is complete, {001} is clear.
Structure: orthorhombic system, space group p6nm. The lattice parameters are a 0 = 0.2954 nm, b 0 = 1.3808 nm, c 0 = 0.369 nm, and z = 4 is associated with molybdenum ore, which is produced in iron-rich minerals - pyrite, pyrrhotite and The oxidation zone of the deposit of oxidation products is the product of molybdenite oxidation. Deposited in cracks and voids. In a large number of enriched areas (the upper layers of Claymax, Solsk, Kurikawa and other deposits), Tie Mohua (with Molybdenum) has industrial exploitation value. It is the most important and most common molybdenum secondary mineral.
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3. Molybdate
(1) Calcium molybdate ore CaMoO 4 :
Ingredients: Theoretically, it contains 72% MoO 3 and 28% CaO, but tungsten (W) is often mixed with similar materials.
Properties: density 4.3~4.5g/cm 3 , Mohs hardness 3.5. Soluble in acid and alkali solution. Minerals are light grey, white to dark green or light yellow to yellowish green. Kim just luster. It is brittle and has no cleavage.
Structure: tetragonal system, square biconical symmetry L 4 PC, space group C b 4m. The lattice parameters are: a 0 = 0.533 nm, c 0 = 1.144 nm, and the crystal structure is completely similar to scheelite (CaWO 4 ). The crystals are fine and have a double cone flaky shape, and the ore is often the illusion of molybdenite. In addition, there are also soil-like and film-like outputs. Calcium molybdate ore is often symbiotic with scheelite and molybdenite.
(2) Molybdenum tungsten calcium ore Ca(MoW)O 4 :
Ingredients: Molybdenum is more than tungsten, which is the product of W into the calcium molybdate ore as a homogeneous substance. Generally, the amount of tungsten molybdenum is as high as 10%, which is called molybdenum-tungsten-calcium ore. If tungsten is less, it is classified as calcium molybdate ore.
Properties and structure: density 4.3~4.5g/cm 3 , Mohs hardness 3.5~4, grass yellow to dark white, streak white, the same structure as scheelite is tetragonal, cleavage is not clear.
Usually molybdenum ore alteration products, less common, often associated with molybdenum ore, scheelite.
(3) Mo-containing scheelite Ca(W,Mo)O 4 :
Ingredients: Tungsten is more than molybdenum, which is the product of molybdenum entering the scheelite with a similar substance. Usually contains Mo ≤ 10% ~ 15%. More than 15% molybdenum has entered the category of molybdenum tungsten ore. Several minerals consisting of Mo, W calcium acid, arranged according to phase content:
Calcium molybdate deposit>Molybdenum tungsten calcium deposit>Molybdenum-containing scheelite>Tungstenite
Its structure is the same as that of scheelite, and its associated minerals are molybdenum ore and scheelite.
Properties: density 5.8 ~ 6.2g / cm 3 , Mohs hardness 4.5, brittle, with obvious one-way dissociation. Tender yellow, streaks yellow and white. Like diamonds. Under ultraviolet light, the pure scheelite is light blue; when it contains 0.5%~2% of molybdenum, it is white; when it contains >2% of molybdenum, it is yellow and similar to molybdenum ore.
Molybdenum-containing scheelite is usually found in skarn-type tungsten-molybdenum deposits, which are rare in veined molybdenum or tungsten deposits.
(4) Color molybdenum lead ore PbMoO 4 :
Ingredients: Mo 26.1%, Pb 56.4%, and sometimes a small amount of CaO, CuO, MgO, WO 3 and other mixed substances. When W replaces Mo into the mineral with a similar isomorphism, a tungsten molybdenum lead ore is formed.
Properties and structure: molecular weight 367.14, density 6.5~7.0g/cm 3 , Mohs hardness 2.75~3, melting point 1065 °C. It is red, orange, yellow, gray, white, with diamond luster or resin luster, and the streaks are white. Tetragonal system, tetragonal biconical symmetry; lattice parameter a 0 =0.5435nm, b 0 =1.211nm, Z=4; with {001} twin crystal; tends to be tetragonal plate shape, a few conical shaped; The body is granulated and produced in blocks.
The secondary minerals, which are produced in the gasification zone of lead and molybdenum deposits, are one of the few important molybdenum minerals, which are widely distributed but have no industrial exploitation value.
(5) Tungsten-molybdenum-lead ore Pb(MoW)O 4 :
Ingredients: the product of molybdenum and its likes entering the lead tungstate. It usually contains 18% Mo, 38% Pb, and 42% WO 3 .
Properties and structure: density 7.5g/cm 3 , Mohs hardness 3~3.5, yellowish brown, hardly soluble in HCI, and different from color molybdenum lead ore. It is a cubic crystal system and is rare in lead and molybdenum deposits.
(6) Molybdenum copper ore Cu 3 (MoO 4 ) 3 (OH) 2 :
Ingredients: containing MoO 3 53.71%, CuO 43.99%, H 2 O 3.32%
Properties: density 4.6g/cm 3 , Mohs hardness 4.5, green or yellow green, diamond gloss.
Structure: Monoclinic system, space group Px1m lattice constant is a 0 = 0.5613 nm, b 0 = 1.403 nm, c 0 = 0.5406 nm, plate crystal.
Molybdenum-copper ore is a secondary mineral, which is rare in copper and molybdenum minerals.
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(7) a molybdenum bismuth Bi 2 (MoO 4) 3:
Ingredients: containing MoO 3 32. 99%, Bi 2 O 3 76.51%
Structure: orthorhombic system, lattice parameters are ao = 0.548 nm, bo = 1.616 nm, co = 0.548 nm, Z = 4. Thin plate crystal form with {011} twin crystal. Yellow green, {100} cleavage is complete. rarely seen.
(8) Molybdenum uranium ore (UO 2 ·UO 3 )·2MoO 3 :
Containing 33% Mo, 40% U, very rare.
(9) Black molybdenum uranium ore (UO 3 ·3UO 2 )·7MoO 3 ·20H 2 O:
Ingredients: containing MoO 3 38.50%, UO 2 10.30%, UO 3 32.35%
Properties: density 4g/cm 3 , Mohs hardness 3~4, amorphous. Black or dark brown, rosin luster. rarely seen.
(10) Purple molybdenum uranium ore (UO 2 +UO 3 )·5.5MoO 3 ·5.3H 2 O:
Ingredients: MoO 3 containing about 63.67%, UO 2 19.38%, UO 3 2.40 weft.
Properties: density 4.2g/cm 3 , Mohs hardness 2.5~3, purple. Hardly soluble in HCI, H 2 SO 4 and KOH, soluble in 20% Na 2 CO 3 solution, soluble in hot, concentrated HNO 3 , and precipitated molybdic acid. rarely seen.
(11) U-Mo deposits U(MoO 4 ) 2 :
The density was 4.2 g/cm 3 and the Mohs hardness was 3.3. The orthorhombic system has a lattice parameter of a 0 = 0.336 nm and b 0 = 0.642 nm. It is often produced in the form of needles and powders. The cleavage parallel extension is completed.
Produced in the shallow zone of uranium-molybdenum ore. It is powdery, radial, and fibrous. Sometimes produced on the surface of evergreen uranium ore. Rare. There are also some rare uranium-molybdenum mines that are not introduced, only the following:
Water, calcium, molybdenum, uranium ore, Ca(UO 2 ) 3 ·(MoO 4 ) 3 ·nH2O, calcium, molybdenum, uranium, Ca(UO 2 ) 3 ·(MoO 4 ) 3 , phosphorus, calcium, molybdenum, uranium, sodium, arsenic, molybdenum, Uranium molybdenum lead ore.
4, other
Molybdenum ore Mo(SO 4 ) 2 ·5H 2 O: containing 27.7% Mo and H 2 O 26.0%. The molybdenum ore is different from the aforementioned molybdate mineral, and molybdenum does not enter the acid radical at a price of +6, but a cation which becomes a salt at a price of +4.

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