A coil on the ground, a coil on the chassis, two coils aligned, press the "charge" button, after a few hours, the electric car can eat and drink, and return to the road. This sounds like it is a bit like a fantasy? Researcher Wang Lifang from the Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences led her team. After more than four years of hard work, the electric car got rid of the dependence on wired charging and opened up an "unlimited" development prospect for electric vehicles. In the second half of this year, this technology will go out of the laboratory and demonstrate in relevant areas. Higher security, lower maintenance costs, and smaller footprint, Wang Lifang believes that the maturity of wireless charging technology will enable the electric car to usher in the "spring" of great development.
Using the principle of electromagnetic field to generate electricity "The principle of wireless charging, in simple terms, is the principle of physical electromagnetic field." Electricity can generate magnetism, magnetism can also bring electricity, changing electric field and changing magnetic field constitute an inseparable unity. The field, this is the electromagnetic field.
Wang Lifang said that the electric car wireless charging system contains two large "modules": one part is on the ground and the other part is mounted on the car. The power change device on the ground is connected to the power grid to transmit power to the coil on the ground; the coil on the ground is coupled with the on-board coil to realize energy transmission and transmission; after that, the power variation device on the vehicle will be from the vehicle coil. The received AC power is converted to the DC power required by the battery.
The entire process described above transfers electricity from the grid to the battery in the electric vehicle. How to ensure the efficient transmission of energy and minimize the loss in this process is a big problem that Wang Lifang needs to overcome. At the beginning of the project in 2011, the most resounding objections that Wang Lifang heard and the doubts were also aimed at charging efficiency. "At that time, everyone felt that there was no point in doing wireless charging. At most, it can achieve 30% and 40% efficiency, and the efficiency of wired charging can reach 80% and 90%." But Wang Lifang does not believe this evil, she noticed the experiment abroad. There are already relevant success stories in the room. "We can do it abroad, we can do it, at least we can try it."
In the second half of the year, a pilot in Beijing will see a wireless charging system for electric vehicles in the laboratory of the Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. A square "mat" about 3 cm high and 60 cm long on the side was laid on the ground and connected to a 20 cm * 15 cm * 15 cm power change device. Wang Lifang said that the "mat" is wrapped in the ground coil. When it is promoted and used in the future, it can be embedded on the ground surface. After being installed, it will be parallel with the ground. This is not only greatly saves space compared with the wired charging pile. And the maintenance cost is reduced, and the risk of equipment damage and electric shock is basically reduced to zero.
Inside the car, there is a small â€œguiding terminalâ€ that can display the distance between the car coil and the ground coil from time to time. â€œThe two coils are positioned as accurately as possible.â€ According to the guidance of the guiding terminal, the car is parked. After that, press the charging button to start charging.
When it comes to electromagnetic fields, everyone will still be worried about the "radiation" they produce. In this regard, Wang Lifang explained that the current state of wireless charging, the country has not yet issued the corresponding standards. The results of the team test show that in the electric vehicle, the magnetic field strength is small due to the shielding effect of the car shell; outside the electric vehicle, although the magnetic field strength is large, it is still less than the safety limit recommended by the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Committee (ICNRP). . In addition, the intensity of the interfering magnetic field decays rapidly as the distance decreases. This means that after leaving a distance, the radiation interference has essentially no effect.
Wang Lifang said that the current wireless charging technology is not mature enough, so the cost is high, and there is still a long way to go before market promotion. However, with the maturity of technology and the promotion of mass production, the future cost is expected to be reduced to the level equivalent to current wired charging. In the second half of the year, the technology will take the first step out of the lab: in the demonstration area of â€‹â€‹electric taxis in Yizhuang or Beijing suburbs, the demonstration operation of wireless charging began. Currently, the parties are coordinating the final demonstration sites.
In the future, it is expected that while charging the current wireless charging technology, it is also necessary to rely on the parking of electric vehicles. Is it possible to charge at any time like a mobile phone in the future? At present, Wang Lifang is leading the team to carry out the technology research and development of â€œdriving while chargingâ€, and the project has been carried out to the research and development stage of the experimental machine. Wang Lifang envisaged that if the technology is realized, a special driving charging route can be opened for electric vehicles in the future, and the project has already been demonstrated in the international market.
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